To implantology means that set of surgical techniques designed to rehabilitate functionally a patient suffering from edentulism total or partial through the use of dental implants that is to say devices, metallic and non-surgically inserted in the mandibular or maxillary bone, or above it but under the gum, acts in turn to allow the connection of prosthesis, fixed or mobile, for the return of the masticatory function. Such plants can be of different shapes, inserted in different locations with different techniques and then connected to the prostheses with different timing.
Currently the plants are almost all made of titanium. The most used are those endosseous screw-type, in the majority of cases left submerged under the gingiva for a substantial period, depending upon the location. The dental implant can be divided up in intraosseous and iuxtaossea, the latter utilizing only plants in the grid with no fixed submerged stump and then to home and how to load osteointegrabili if made of chrome-cobalt-molybdenum, or even if made osteointegrabili titanium and inserted using special surgical techniques favoring bone formation above the structure.
The endosseous implantology is currently the most widespread, and uses implants (implant body proper) of cylindrical shape / conical more or less threaded on the outside and with internal connection varies in conformation for the emerging part (abutment) and more rarely cylinders or cones without external thread but with similar systems of internal connection to the stump, vines full of one body (body implant and abutment made from solid and thus without any connection) blades and needles. Depending on surgical protocol we then implant submerged and not (transmucosal); depending on the timing of use (functionalization) we will have immediate loading, early, deferred.